Free Press: News Gathering

(Complete legal authorities and analysis in The CalAware Guide to Journalism Law in California)

Press Passes

Denial Based on Insufficient Need
Denial Based on Insufficient Status
Denial Based on Criminal Record
Denial Based on Irrelevant Criteria
Applicant’s Right to Appeal Denial

Retaliatory Denial of Access to Persons/Places/Things

News Conferences
Interviews
Court Records
News Releases and Alerts
Application to California Public Utilities

Access to Private Property

Criminal Trespass: Entry/Refusal to Leave
At the Tenant’s Invitation
Accompanying Police, Fire, Rescue Personnel

Under Contract with Raiding Officials
When Search Warrant Is Invalid

Disrupting Proprietor’s Business

Impersonation 

Access to Home of Vulnerable Person
Posing as Public Safety Officer

Access to Public Property

Accident, Disaster, Riot Scenes
Federally Investigated Accident/Disaster Scenes
Parole Hearings in Prison
Executions
Public School Premises
Arts/Sports/Entertainment Events

Acquisition of Leaked/Discarded Records 

Receiving Leaked Copies
Receiving Improperly Disclosed Information
Receiving “Stolen” Informational Property
Refusing to Return Leaked Originals
Dumpster Diving for Discarded Records

Learning about the Ill and Injured

California Law
Federal Law

Secret Recording of Conversations

California Law
Recording in a Person’s Home Office
Recording in a Person’s Business Office
Recording a Co-worker in the Workplace
Recording a Person’s Medical Consultation

Other Prohibited Hi-Tech Privacy Intrusion

California Law in General 
Cellphone Interception
Cordless Phone Interception
Cellular Radiotelephone Interception
Police Radio Scanning
Unauthorized Computer Access
Surreptitious Voice Stress Analyzing
Electronic Vehicle Tracking

Publishing Intercepted Conversations

Public Interest Balancing Test
Effect of Duty of Confidentiality

Photography and the Unwilling Subject

Restraining Orders for Photo Stalking
Civil Liability for Paparazzi Assault
Civil Liability for Telephoto Intrusion

Interviewing the Willing and Unwilling

Freedom to Ask Anyone Anything
Abrasive, Confrontational Interviews
Government Gags of Ordinary Citizens
Grand Jury Gags of Elected Officials

Government Employees’ Speech Restrictions

Employer’s Approval Needed to Speak to the Press
Employer’s Prohibition of Informing the Press
Employer’s Punishment of Employee’s Speech

Interviewing Participants in Judicial Proceedings

Grand Jurors’ Disclosure of Closed Proceedings
Judicial Gag Orders on Speech by Trial Participants

California Standard for Issuing Gag Order
Federal Standard for Issuing Gag Order

Judicial Gag Orders to Protect Privacy
Judicial Gag Orders to Protect Reputation
Judicial Gag Orders to Protect Business Data

Interviewing Others under Government Control

Inmates of County Jails
Inmates of State Prisons
Patients in Government Mental Hospitals
Public School Students

Confidential Source Liabilities

Deliberate Disclosure of Source’s Identity
Inadvertent Disclosure of Source’s Identity

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